Children may qualify for speech/language services if their speech and/or language adversely affects their educational performance:
1. Articulation Disorder: error in speech sound production
- If a sound is not developed by a certain age (developmental norms), an articulation disorder may develop
2. Language Disorder: According to ASHA, a language disorder is "A delay in the acquisition and use of language across modalities (e.g., speech, sign language, or both) due to deficits in comprehension and/or production across any of the five language domains (i.e., phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics)".
3. Fluency Disorder: Fluency is the aspect of speech production that refers to continuity, smoothness, rate, and effort.
-Stuttering, the most common fluency disorder, is an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by repetitions (sounds, syllables, words, phrases), sound prolongations, blocks, interjections, and revisions, which may affect the rate and rhythm of speech (ASHA, 2019).
4. Voice Disorder: A voice disorder occurs when voice quality, pitch, and loudness differ or are inappropriate for an individual's age, gender, cultural background, or geographic location (ASHA, 2019).